Qadha-ul Fawa’it -The Performing of Missed Prayers (Salah)
22nd June 2008
Allah (swt) has stated in the Quran: “Perform the Prayer (salah). Verily, prayer is enjoined on the believers at prescribed times.” (Surah An Nisa, 4:103)
If for any reason, other than due to fear for one’s life, unintentional oversleeping or forgetfulness, a person was to fail in performing the stipulated prayer at its proper time, they would be guilty of committing a major sin. In the first three generations (Salaf us Saliheen) of Islam, the prayer was never missed due to neglect or laziness. The prayer was never missed intentionally. If after reaching the age of purberty, any prayers have been missed, it is compulsory to perform them. The obligation of the prayer will remain, even after Repentance (Tawbah), for these missed prayers. It should then be performed and accounted for, as quickly as possible through Qadha salah. (Khutabhaat, Fatawa Rashidia p352) Women who missed prayers in the state of menstruation, do not need to perform Qadha salah for these missed prayers. (Sunan Abu Dawood).
Allama Muhammad bin Abdur Rahman said that ‘All people of knowledge from the Ummah regard the performings of missed salah as Wajib and are united on this. This is regarded s Ijma’ (Rahamatul Umma p46)
It is related from Ibn Abbas (ra) that the Prophet (saw) stated: ‘Whoever joins 2 prayers together (for example if someone was to read Zohar and Asr together) without a valid reason, he has passed through one of the doors from among the doors leading to Major sin.’ (Sunan Tirmidi v1, p48 / Mustadarak Hakim v1, p275)
The Prophet (saw) stated: ‘If the prayer of any person is missed, it is as if he has lost his family, wealth, and property in an instance.’ (Sahih Ibn Hiban / Musnad Ahmad)
It is Compulsory to make up the prayers missed
Abdullah ibn Abaas(ra) stated: ‘The Prayer is classified as missed when the time for the next prayer comes in (and one has not yet prayed). (Tahawih v1, p114)
Once the Prophet (saw) was on a journey with some companions (ra). They had travelled throughout the night and due to tiredness the Prophet (saw) stopped at a particular place and rested together with the companions (ra). Hazrat Bilal (ra) was given the responsibility to stay awake and inform the sleeping companions of the time for the Fajr prayer. However, it so happened that Bilal (ra) also fell asleep. When the sun rose the Prophet (saw) awoke and informed all the companions that Allah (swt) had taken their souls and if Allah (swt) so wished he could have returned their souls before day break. The Prophet (saw) then stated: ‘When any of you sleeps or forgets to pray, then it is compulsory that they perform the missed prayer when they awake or remember. ’ (Mishkaat / Sahih Bukhari p84, #597 / Sunan Abu Dawood p70, #435)
The performing of the missed prayer is compulsory. This is due to the fact that to pray the Salah in its ordained time was compulsory. When the prayer is missed, it is therefore now compulsory to performing that missed prayer. To perform the missed prayers in the specific order is also compulsory whether the prayer was missed with or without a valid reason. Those that do not regard performing missed salah as compulsory are wrong and in ignorance. (Sharah Muslim Vol 1 p238)
Ibn Masud (ra) stated: ‘On the day of the battle of the trench, the polytheists caused the Prophet (saw) and the Companions (ra) to miss 4 prayers (Zohar, Asr, Magrib and Isha). Up to that point much of the night had passed, the Prophet (saw) then told Bilal (ra) to give the Azan. Iqamah was then given and Zohar was prayed, then iqamah was given and Asr was prayed, then iqamah was given and Magrib was prayed and then finally iqamah was given and Isha was prayed. (Sunan Tirmidi p43 / Sunan Nasai p85)
In this hadith the prayers are made up in the order they are ordained to be prayed. From this it is understood that to pray in the given order is compulsory. If the number of missed prayers are more than 5 in number and there is a danger that the present prayer may also be missed due to repeating them. In this instance the requirement of praying in sequential order is no longer compulsory. (Musnad Abdur Razaaq v2, p4 / Kabeeri p530 / Sharah Niqaya v1 p109)
To repeat the Witr prayer of Isha is also necessary
Hazrat Buraida (ra) related that the Prophet (saw) stated: ‘The Witr of Isha is Truly Wajib’. The Prophet (saw) then said 3 times – ‘Whoever does not read the Witr of Isha prayer is not from amongst us (Muslims).’ (Abu Dawood v1, p201/ Hakim v1, p305)
Imam Sha’bi, Ata bin Abi Reba, Hasan Basri, Mujahid (rah) all state to never leave out the Witr prayer, even if the sun comes out, then repeat it if you have missed it. (Musanaf Ibn Abi Shayba v2, p290)
Imam Ibrahim Nakhai (rah) stated: ‘Ibn Umar (ra) used to read their nawafil prayers on his mount when travelling, no matter which way the animal was facing. However, when it came to the time for the Fard and Witr of Isha, Ibn Umar (ra) would get off his animal and read on the ground.’ (Muwata Imam Muhammed p124) Only fard salah and Witr of Isha need to be performing as Qadha Salah. If today’s Sunnah salah of Fajar is missed then one should not perform it after the fard of Fajar but after the sun has risen, up until Zawaal of the same day. Ibn Umar (ra) when he missed the two Sunnah salah of Fajar would pray these salah after sunrise on the same day NOT after the Fard of Fajr. (Muwata Imam Malik p112, Tirmidi p96, Musanaf Ibn Abi Shayba v2 p255)
All Qadha salah should not be performed at the times when it has been ordained not to pray, the exact time when the Sun rises, the Zawal period and the exact time of sunset.
Uqba bin Amir Jahni (ra) has related from the Prophet (saw) that it is not permissible to pray Salah or pray over the dead (Salatul Janazah) in the above 3 stated times. (Sahih Muslim v1, p276 / Sunan Tirmidi p167, Sahih Bukhari v1 p82)
May Allah (swt) place in our hearts the love and importance of praying each prayer at its ordained time and with Jamat. Ameen.
Mufti Yusuf Danka